Nigeria System Of Education:The Federal Republic of Nigeria,as called is in the West African sub-region, bordered by Cameroon in the east,Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, and Benin in the west. Nigeria currently has 36 states and capitals with a Federal Capital Territory in Abuja and a population of over 170 million people. Of this population, approximately 40 million  people are said to be students. The three dominant tribes are Yoruba in the southwest, Ibo in the eastern region and Hausa in the north. The official or general language is English, although most people speak their native languages in addition to English.  English is seen to be the only language used in schools, for reading, writing and speaking.

Education in Nigeria is the shared responsibility of the three tiers of governments. The Federal Ministry of Education plays a major role in regulating the educational sector, engaging in policy formation towards ensuring it control.  The education sector is divided into three sub-sectors: basic (nine years), post-basic/senior secondary (three years), and tertiary (four to seven years, depending on the major or course of study). Education in Nigeria is provided by both public and private institutions.

Secondary education includes three years of senior secondary education in an academic. Continuing education options are provided through vocational and technical schools as the case may be.

The tertiary sector consists of both university and a non-university sector. The non-university sector is composed of polytechnics, monotechnics and colleges of education. The tertiary sector as a whole offers opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, vocational and technical education.  The academic year typically runs from September to July. Most of the Nigeria universities make use of a semester system which is usually between 18 – 20 weeks.While Others run consecutively from January to December, divided into 3 terms.

Every year, an average of 1.7 million students take the JAMB or Unified Tertiary and Matriculation Examination  for entrance into Nigerian universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Universities have the power to absorb less than 40 percent of these applicants. The other 60 percent will have to go to their second and third choice of institutions which are polytechnics and colleges of education. Many Nigerian students also apply to institutions abroad.

In Nigeria,there are  various government reforms and initiatives aimed at improving the Nigerian educational system. These include the upgrade of some polytechnics and colleges of education to the status of degree-awarding institutions, the approval and accreditation of more private universities.

Primary and Secondary School system in Nigeria

Primary education (basic 1-6) is compulsory,most times, not free and offered to children between 6-12 of age. The educational curriculum is created toward providing basic knowledge as well as laying a sound foundation for scientific reasoning, critical and reflective thinking, and also in equipping children with the much needed life skills to function effectively in society and country at large.

Under the new Universal Basic Education system of 9-3-4, which replaced the latter universal primary education scheme of 6-3-3-4, students attend six years of primary school and three years of junior secondary, making nine years of uninterrupted and compulsory  education. This is followed by three years of senior secondary schooling.entry into the junior secondary education was based on the Common Entrance Examination not Until 2006 , but entry is currently on automatic.

The Junior Secondary School Certificate is awarded at the end of junior secondary school. Students who pass the Junior Secondary Certificate Examination  at the credit level with six credits and above may proceed to senior secondary school either in the same educational institution, or they may transfer to another institution of their choice.

Core subjects at the junior secondary level include: English,mathematics, French, science, technology, Nigerian language (Igbo,Hausa and Yoruba),  and social studies and civics. Students may also choose to study a number of some other subjects.

Students take the Senior Secondary  Examination at the end of ss3 class. The Senior Secondary Certificate  is then awarded to successful candidates. The certificate lists all subjects in which the student is successful. The Senior Secondary  Examination replaced the West African General Certificate Examination O and A levels since 1989, but those examinations are still available to students.

students must scored at least a C in English and four other course subjects relevant to his or her area of study in order to sit for the Nigeria University Tertiary Matriculation Examination. A student applying for admission to study computer science or Economics, for instance, will be required to have at least a C in mathematics as well as in English language,whereas a student applying for a program in history may not even require a C in mathematics.

The Senior Secondary school Certificate is issued by the West African Examination Council depending on the examination board used.Students can register for a maximum of nine subjects and a minimum of seven subjects,including mathematics and English. An average grade of ‘credit’ level is required for entrance into public universities; however some require higher grades for admission.

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